If the newspaper is online, get the URL and date of access, too. If you found the newspaper article in a database, write down the URL, date of access, database, and library through which article was accessed name, city, and state. Get the author's name if given , title of work, group responsible for the site if applicable , date site was last updated, date of access, and URL.
If you have trouble finding everything except the last two items, you might want to reconsider the validity of this source. For postings, also get the title of posting, post number if numbered , date of posting, URL the post was made to, and URL of message archives. If published by the US government, get the issuing agency, title of the document, number of the Congress, session number of Congress, place of publication, date of publication, document number if given , and SuDoc number.
Place a reference next to each statement that you've cited. When you're writing your final paper, be sure to keep track of which source each cited statement came from. How you do so depends on which format you're using. Place an MLA reference. Write author last name and page number in parentheses. If the author is already mentioned in the statement, just put the page number in parentheses.
If there are two authors, name them both with "and" in the middle. Use commas if there are more than two authors. Place the citation before a punctuation mark. Add a superscript number at the end of the statement to denote which source it is referring to. Even if you refer to the same source multiple times, it gets a new superscript number every time.
Start the superscript numbers from 1 every time you start a new page. Place an APA reference. Write the author last name or organization name and year in parentheses. If the author is already mentioned in the statement, put the year in parentheses next to the name and put the page number in parentheses at the end of the statement, if applicable. Unlike with the Turabian footnotes, there's only one superscript number for each source.
It's possible to have superscript numbers on one page that are out of order if a source was cited on a previous page. You can also cite multiple sources at once by specifying a range, or using a comma. The citation can go in the sentence or at the end, after punctuation. Write the author last name and publication year in parentheses.
If the author is already mentioned in the statement, just put the year in parentheses. Use commas only if there are more than two authors. Cite in Chicago Manual of Style.
Chicago style usually lists author and then date. This style is recommended for natural and social sciences, as well as the other humanities. Similar to MLA as described above. For example, Marbury v. Madison , 5 U. Madison, found in the fifth volume of the reports of the U.
Supreme Court, starting at page , 12 U. Assemble the list of works cited or references. This is what the reader will refer to when they see a citation and want to find out where you got the information. It usually goes at the end of the work except when you use Turabian footnotes and is sometimes referred to as a bibliography when it includes sources that were not directly cited.
There are many different ways to cite research sources. This method - parenthetical citation - is currently most in favor. Start with nothing in your bibliography, and build it based on your parenthetical citations. This will ensure that you haven't listed any sources you didn't cite, and that you haven't cited any sources you didn't list. Put the last name of the author and the year of publication in parentheses after the relevant piece of text, as in: Distinguish between sources written in the same year by the same author; add lower-case letters in chronological order.
Thus " O'Leary, a " is earlier than " O'Leary, b. Notice also that I placed the date that the book was published directly after the author's name in parentheses--this is proper APA format.
If I was using a particular website instead of John Smith's book , the signal phrase would look exactly the same, but I would say "According to Pocahontasrules.
Use an in-text citation in situations where you are not quoting someone directly, but rather using information from another source such as a fact, summary, or paraphrase to support your own ideas.
She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style," but she did not offer an explanation Jones, , p. Notice that it's clear within this sentence that I'm referring to a certain person's beliefs, but since this person's name does not appear at the beginning of the sentence, I have placed her name, the year that her article was published, and the page number where I retrieved this information in parentheses at the end of the sentence. Summarize an article or a larger section of an article whenever you simply want to present the author's general ideas in your essay.
How to Write an Effective Summary: Cover up the original article, it is key that you not quote from the original work. Restate what you've read in your own words, and be sure to give the author credit using an in-text citation. Congressman Joe Smith believes that our approach to reforming the healthcare system is backwards and costly.
He discusses our rising national debt in "Healthcare: Let's Talk" and lists several statistics to prove that Obama's new plan will only make things worse. Summaries are most often used to condense larger texts into more manageable chucks. However, as a writer you should be aware that this more manageable chunks and easily become vague and weigh your paper down with fluff. The original passage from The Confident Student 6th ed. No matter what condition your body is in, you can pretty much guarantee that poor health habits will lead to a lack of academic success.
Students need to take time for their physical and emotional well-being, as well as their studies, during college Kanar No matter how old you are, your well-being and your health can impact your ability to do a good job at school. If you choose not to eat well, exercise, deal with stress, and avoid getting drunk, then your grades will go down Kanar Because the art of paraphrasing is more concise than summarizing, a true paraphrase shows that you as a researcher completely understand the source work.
If you need help incorporating your sources into your essay , the first thing you'll need to remember is that quotes cannot stand alone --they can't be placed in a sentence all by themselves. You need to make each quote a part of your essay by introducing it beforehand and commenting on it afterward.
Think of each quote like a sandwich—the quote is the meat on the inside, but before you taste the meat, you must also be introduced to the sandwich by the bread. After you bite down on that meat, you need the other piece of bread to round out the meal. The bottom piece of bread points out what was important about the quote and elaborates on what was being said.
No comma is necessary to introduce the quoted phrase.
Use bibliography software to help keep track of and cite sources. Several such programs are available, and can save a lot of time and energy. Consider taking a .
Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper. The first time you cite a source, it is almost always a good idea to mention its author(s), title, and genre (book, article, or web page, etc.). If the source is central to your work, you may want to introduce it in a separate sentence or two, summarizing its importance and main ideas.
APA Style uses an author-date reference citation system in the text with an accompanying reference list. That means that to cite any reference in a paper, the writer should cite the author and year of the work, either by putting both in parentheses separated by a comma (parenthetical citation) or by putting the author in the narrative of the sentence and the . Aug 29, · To cite sources, first determine whether you’re using in-text, MLA, Chicago, APA, or Turabian citation, since each style has different rules. Then, while you’re writing your paper, be sure to put an appropriate reference next to each cited statement. If you're using MLA, for example, write the author's name and the page number being cited%(25).
HISTORICAL-How to Cite Sources in a Paper This page is no longer being updated. For similar information, we recommend Purdue Online Writing Lab's Research and Citation . There are three main ways to uses sources in your research paper. You may quote. You may paraphrase. Or you may summarize. All three require an in-text (parenthetical) citation!