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The History of Harry and Lucy urged children to teach themselves. Rousseau's ideas also had great influence in Germany, especially on German Philanthropism , a movement concerned with reforming both education and literature for children. Its founder, Johann Bernhard Basedow , authored Elementarwerk as a popular textbook for children that included many illustrations by Daniel Chodowiecki.

Another follower, Joachim Heinrich Campe , created an adaptation of Robinson Crusoe that went into over printings. He became Germany's "outstanding and most modern" [2]: In the early 19th century, Danish author and poet Hans Christian Andersen traveled through Europe and gathered many well-known fairy tales.

This dislike of non-traditional stories continued there until the beginning of the next century. As professors, they had a scholarly interest in the stories, striving to preserve them and their variations accurately, recording their sources.

By compiling these stories, they preserved Norway's literary heritage and helped create the Norwegian written language. In Switzerland , Johann David Wyss published The Swiss Family Robinson in , with the aim of teaching children about family values, good husbandry, the uses of the natural world and self-reliance.

The book became popular across Europe after it was translated into French by Isabelle de Montolieu. The shift to a modern genre of children's literature occurred in the midth century; didacticism of a previous age began to make way for more humorous, child-oriented books, more attuned to the child's imagination. The availability of children's literature greatly increased as well, as paper and printing became widely available and affordable, the population grew and literacy rates improved.

Tom Brown's School Days by Thomas Hughes appeared in , and is considered to be the founding book in the school story tradition. Regarded as the first "English masterpiece written for children" [9]: In , Carlo Collodi wrote the first Italian fantasy novel, The Adventures of Pinocchio , which was translated many times.

In that same year, Emilio Salgari , the man who would become "the adventure writer par excellence for the young in Italy" [36] first published his legendary character Sandokan. Barrie told the story of Peter Pan in the novel Peter and Wendy in Johanna Spyri 's two-part novel Heidi was published in Switzerland in and Boys' book writer Oliver Optic published over books.

In , the "epoch-making book" [9]: This " coming of age " story established the genre of realistic family books in the United States. The Chinese Revolution of and World War II brought political and social change that revolutionized children's literature in China. Western science, technology, and literature became fashionable. China's first modern publishing firm, Commercial Press , established several children's magazines, which included Youth Magazine , and Educational Pictures for Children.

Yuxiu encouraged novelist Shen Dehong to write for children as well. Dehong went on to rewrite 28 stories based on classical Chinese literature specifically for children.

The Chinese Revolution of changed children's literature again. Many children's writers were denounced, but Tianyi and Ye Shengtao continued to write for children and created works that aligned with Maoist ideology. The death of Mao Zedong provoked more changes that swept China. Many writers from the early part of the century were brought back, and their work became available again. In , General Anthology of Modern Children's Literature of China , a fifteen-volume anthology of children's literature since the s, was released.

Literature for children developed as a separate category of literature especially in the Victorian era. Some works became internationally known, such as those of Lewis Carroll , Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass.

At the end of the Victorian era and leading into the Edwardian era, Beatrix Potter was an author and illustrator, best known for her children's books, which featured animal characters.

Potter eventually went on to publish 23 children's books and become a wealthy woman. Tunnell and James S. In the latter years of the 19th century, precursors of the modern picture book were illustrated books of poems and short stories produced by English illustrators Randolph Caldecott , Walter Crane , and Kate Greenaway.

These had a larger proportion of pictures to words than earlier books, and many of their pictures were in colour.

Some British artists made their living illustrating novels and children's books; among them were Arthur Rackham , Cicely Mary Barker , W. Heath Robinson , Henry J. Ford , John Leech , and George Cruikshank. The Kailyard school of Scottish writers, notably J. Barrie , creator of Peter Pan , presented an idealised version of society and brought fantasy and folklore back into fashion. In Hugh Lofting created the character Doctor Dolittle who appears in a series of twelve books.

The main exceptions in England were the publications of Winnie-the-Pooh by A. Milne in , the first Mary Poppins book by P. Travers in , The Hobbit by J. Children's paperback books were first released in England in under the Puffin Books imprint, and their lower prices helped make book buying possible for children during World War II.

Enid Blyton 's books have been among the world's best-sellers since the s, selling more than million copies. Blyton's books are still enormously popular, and have been translated into almost 90 languages. She wrote on a wide range of topics including education, natural history, fantasy, mystery, and biblical narratives and is best remembered today for her Noddy , The Famous Five , The Secret Seven , and The Adventure Series. In the s, the book market in Europe began recovering from the effects of two world wars.

An informal literary discussion group associated with the English faculty at the University of Oxford, were the "Inklings". Its leading members were the major fantasy novelists; C. Lewis published the first installment of The Chronicles of Narnia series in while Tolkien is best known in addition to The Hobbit as the author of The Lord of the Rings.

The latter work is an adaptation of the myth of Blodeuwedd from the Mabinogion , set in modern Wales , and for it Garner won the annual Carnegie Medal from the Library Association , recognising the year's best children's book by a British author. Mary Norton wrote The Borrowers , featuring tiny people who borrow from humans.

Philippa Pearce 's Tom's Midnight Garden has him opening the garden door at night and entering into a different age. The heroine of Charlotte Sometimes by Penelope Farmer is already shaken by her arrival in a girls' boarding school when she finds herself waking as another girl in the same bed, but decades earlier.

She needs urgent help from nearby children to hide her cat and kittens. Roald Dahl rose to prominence with his children's fantasy novels , often inspired from experiences from his childhood, with often unexpected endings, and unsentimental, dark humour. Fox , The Witches , and Matilda Starting in , Michael Bond published humorous stories about Paddington Bear. Boarding schools in literature are centred on older pre-adolescent and adolescent school life, and are most commonly set in English boarding schools.

Ruth Manning-Sanders collected and retold fairy tales , and her first work A Book of Giants contains a number of famous giants , notably Jack and the Beanstalk. Raymond Briggs ' children's picture book The Snowman has been adapted as an animation, shown every Christmas on British television, and for the stage as a musical.

Margery Sharp 's series The Rescuers is based on a heroic mouse organisation. Anthony Horowitz 's Alex Rider series begins with Stormbreaker Rowling 's Harry Potter fantasy series is a sequence of seven novels that chronicle the adventures of the adolescent wizard Harry Potter. The series began with Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone in and ended with the seventh and final book Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows in ; becoming the best selling book-series in history.

The series has been translated into 67 languages, [44] [45] placing Rowling among the most translated authors in history. Adventure stories written specifically for children began in the 19th century. The Victorian era saw the development of the genre, with W.

Henty specializing in the production of adventure fiction for boys. In the years after the First World War, writers such as Arthur Ransome — developed the adventure genre by setting the adventure in Britain rather than distant countries. Ransome began publishing in his Swallows and Amazons series of children's books about the school-holiday adventures of children, mostly in the English Lake District and the Norfolk Broads.

Many of the books involve sailing; fishing and camping are other common subjects. Biggles made his first appearance in the story The White Fokker , published in the first issue of Popular Flying magazine and again as part of the first collection of Biggles stories, The Camels Are Coming both Johns continued to write Biggles books until his death in , the series eventually spanning nearly a hundred volumes — including novels and short story collections — most of the latter with a common setting and time.

Geoffrey Trease and Rosemary Sutcliff [50] brought a new sophistication to the historical adventure novel. An important aspect of British children's literature has been comic books and magazines. Amongst the most popular comics have been The Dandy [51] and The Beano. Many prominent authors contributed to the Boys Own Paper: Ballantyne , as well as Robert Baden-Powell , the inspiration for the Scout Movement , Between —61 there was 60 issues with stories about Biggles by W.

Johns , [56] and in the s occasional contributors included Isaac Asimov and the respected astronomer Patrick Moore. Between —47 Captain W. Johns contributed sixty stories featuring the female pilot Worrals. The Eagle was a popular British comic for boys, launched in by Marcus Morris , an Anglican vicar from Lancashire. Revolutionary in its presentation and content, it was enormously successful; the first issue sold about , copies. Eagle also contained news and sport sections, and educational cutaway diagrams of sophisticated machinery.

Children's literature has been a part of American Culture since Europeans first settled in America. The earliest books were used as tools to instill self-control in children and preach a life of morality in Puritan society. It includes what is thought to be the earliest nursery rhyme and one of the earliest examples of a text book approaching education from the child's point of view, rather than the adult's. One of the most famous books of American children's literature is L.

Children's reading rooms in libraries, staffed by specially trained librarians, helped create demand for classic juvenile books. Reviews of children's releases began appearing regularly in Publishers Weekly and in The Bookman magazine began to regularly publish reviews of children's releases, and the first Children's Book Week was launched in In that same year, Louise Seaman Bechtel became the first person to head a juvenile book publishing department in the country.

She was followed by May Massee in , and Alice Dalgliesh in The American Library Association began awarding the Newbery Medal , the first children's book award, in The young adult book market developed during this period, thanks to sports books by popular writer John R.

The already vigorous growth in children's books became a boom in the s, and children's publishing became big business. White published Charlotte's Web , which was described as "one of the very few books for young children that face, squarely, the subject of death". The s saw an age of new realism in children's books emerge. Given the atmosphere of social revolution in s America, authors and illustrators began to break previously established taboos in children's literature.

Controversial subjects dealing with alcoholism, death, divorce, and child abuse were now being published in stories for children. Maurice Sendak's Where the Wild Things Are in and Louise Fitzhugh 's Harriet the Spy in are often considered the first stories published in this new age of realism. Taylor in Roll of Thunder, Hear My Cry continued the tradition of the historical adventure in an American setting.

Laura Numeroff published If You Give a Mouse a Cookie in and went on to create a series of similarly named books that is still popular for children and adults to read together. Lloyd Alexander 's The Chronicles of Prydain was set in a fictionalized version of medieval Britain.

Erik Werenskiold , Theodor Kittelsen , and Dikken Zwilgmeyer were especially popular, writing folk and fairy tales as well as realistic fiction. The translation into English by George Webbe Dasent helped increase the stories' influence. Swiss author Marcus Pfister's Rainbow Fish series has received international acclaim since By the s, literary realism and non-fiction dominated children's literature.

More schools were started, using books by writers like Konstantin Ushinsky and Leo Tolstoy , whose Russian Reader included an assortment of stories, fairy tales, and fables.

Books written specifically for girls developed in the s and s. Publisher and journalist Evgenia Tur wrote about the daughters of well-to-do landowners, while Alexandra Nikitichna Annenskaya 's stories told of middle-class girls working to support themselves. Vera Zhelikhovsky , Elizaveta Kondrashova , and Nadezhda Lukhmanova also wrote for girls during this period. Children's non-fiction gained great importance in Russia at the beginning of the century. A ten-volume children's encyclopedia was published between and Children's magazines flourished, and by the end of the century there were Realism took a gloomy turn by frequently showing the maltreatment of children from lower classes.

The most popular boys' material was Sherlock Holmes , and similar stories from detective magazines. The state took control of children's literature during the October Revolution. Maksim Gorky edited the first children's, Northern Lights , under Soviet rule.

With a children's branch, the official oversight of the professional organization brought children's writers under the control of the state and the police. Communist principles like collectivism and solidarity became important themes in children's literature. Authors wrote biographies about revolutionaries like Lenin and Pavlik Morozov. Alexander Belyayev , who wrote in the s and s, became Russia's first science fiction writer. Today, the field is in a state of flux because some older authors are being rediscovered and others are being abandoned.

The series is considered representative of Brazilian children's literature and the Brazilian equivalent to children's classics such as C. Lewis , The Chronicles of Narnia and L. Christian missionaries first established the Calcutta School-Book Society in the 19th century, creating a separate genre for children's literature in that country. Magazines and books for children in native languages soon appeared. Nobel Prize winner Rabindranath Tagore wrote plays, stories, and poems for children, including one work illustrated by painter Nandalal Bose.

They worked from the end of the 19th century into the beginning of the 20th century. Tagore's work was later translated into English, with Bose's pictures. His stories were didactic in nature. The first full-length children's book was Khar Khar Mahadev by Narain Dixit , which was serialized in one of the popular children's magazines in Other writers include Premchand , and poet Sohan Lal Dwivedi. Bengali children's literature flourished in the later part of the twentieth century.

Educator Gijubhai Badheka published over books in the Children's literature in Gujarati language , and many of them are still popular. In , political cartoonist K. Shankar Pillai founded the Children's Book Trust publishing company. The firm became known for high quality children's books, and many of them were released in several languages. He wrote biographies of many historical personalities, such as Kapila Deva.

In , the firm organized a writers' competition to encourage quality children's writing. One of the pioneering children's writer in Persian was Mehdi Azar-Yazdi.

Originally, for centuries, stories were told by Africans in their native languages, many being told during social gatherings. Stories varied between mythic narratives dealing with creation and basic proverbs showcasing human wisdom. These narratives were passed down from generation to generation orally. Most children's books depict the African culture and lifestyle, and trace their roots to traditional folktales, riddles, and proverbs.

Publishing companies also aided in the development of children's literature. Children's literature can be divided into categories, either according to genre or the intended age of the reader. A literary genre is a category of literary compositions. Genres may be determined by technique, tone, content, or length. According to Anderson, [81] there are six categories of children's literature with some significant subgenres:. The criteria for these divisions are vague, and books near a borderline may be classified either way.

Books for younger children tend to be written in simple language, use large print, and have many illustrations. Books for older children use increasingly complex language, normal print, and fewer if any illustrations. The categories with an age range are listed below:. Pictures have always accompanied children's stories. Generally, artwork plays a greater role in books intended for younger readers especially pre-literate children. Children's picture books often serve as an accessible source of high quality art for young children.

Even after children learn to read well enough to enjoy a story without illustrations, they continue to appreciate the occasional drawings found in chapter books. According to Joyce Whalley in The International Companion Encyclopedia of Children's Literature , "an illustrated book differs from a book with illustrations in that a good illustrated book is one where the pictures enhance or add depth to the text.

Acting as a kind of encyclopedia, Orbis Pictus had a picture on every page, followed by the name of the object in Latin and German. It was translated into English in and was used in homes and schools around Europe and Great Britain for years. Early children's books, such as Orbis Pictus , were illustrated by woodcut , and many times the same image was repeated in a number of books regardless of how appropriate the illustration was for the story.

One of the first uses of Chromolithography a way of making multi-colored prints in a children's book was demonstrated in Struwwelpeter , published in Germany in English illustrator Walter Crane refined its use in children's books in the late 19th century. Another method of creating illustrations for children's books was etching , used by George Cruikshank in the s.

Most pictures were still black-and-white, and many color pictures were hand colored, often by children. Twentieth-century artists such as Kay Nielson , Edmund Dulac , and Arthur Rackham produced illustrations that are still reprinted today.

After World War II, offset lithography became more refined, and painter-style illustrations, such as Brian Wildsmith 's were common by the s. Professional organizations, dedicated publications, individual researchers and university courses conduct scholarship on children's literature.

Scholarship in children's literature is primarily conducted in three different disciplinary fields: Typically, children's literature scholars from literature departments in universities English, German, Spanish, etc.

This literary criticism may focus on an author, a thematic or topical concern, genre, period, or literary device and may address issues from a variety of critical stances poststructural, postcolonial, New Criticism, psychoanalytic, new historicism, etc. Results of this type of research are typically published as books or as articles in scholarly journals. The field of Library and Information Science has a long history of conducting research related to children's literature.

Most educational researchers studying children's literature explore issues related to the use of children's literature in classroom settings.

They may also study topics such as home use, children's out-of-school reading, or parents' use of children's books. Teachers typically use children's literature to augment classroom instruction. A New Telling of Little Black Sambo , making its content more appropriate and empowering for ethnic minority children.

Eske Wollrad claimed Astrid Lindgren 's Pippi Longstocking novels "have colonial racist stereotypes", [89] urging parents to skip specific offensive passages when reading to their children.

Criticisms of the novel The Secret Garden by author Frances Hodgson Burnett claim endorsement of racist attitudes toward black people through the dialogue of main character Mary Lennox. The picture book The Snowy Day , written and illustrated by Ezra Jack Keats was published in and is known as the first picture book to portray an African-American child as a protagonist.

Middle Eastern and Central American protagonists still remain underrepresented in North American picture books. Link to latest article, a terrific food and wine pairing session in Chateauneuf-du-Pape: Will provide further information when available. I've also been spending an enormous amount of time reorganizing the wines and papers in my country house. Backbreaking labor, metric tonnes of papers and cartons thrown out, spaces cleared. All this by way of explaining why I've been so silent!

Here's a link to my latest Zester Daily article. It's on a wonderful Southern Rhone wine family. February 16, 23, The New Order News from the home front: I have finally recovered from the flu. I'm working on a very long article for The World of Fine Wine which ought to have been finished by now but for the flu. As soon as I can find time, I'll be sending out my first of the New Order newsletter. This one will focus on a young grower in Vouvray. Remember to sign up for the Newsletter.

I know, I know, I've been silent for ages. All the Salons in Angers, followed by the worst bout of flu I've had since the Asiatic flu in the s. It's a long, bronchitis-filled goodbye, this flu. And, praise be, quite a few deadlines keeping me busy.

So here's my plan: I'll no longer post tasting notes on the site. I'll send them out as a Newsletter. So, if you want to get the posts, please sign up for the newsletter -- if you haven't already done so. Go to the French Feast page. In the right hand margin you should see the place where you can sign up for the newsletter. Once you've signed up, you should receive an email asking you to confirm.

If this system fails, please let me know and I'll try to take care of it. As ever, on the Home Page, I'll note what articles of mine have appeared lately. I've got two coming out that you'll want to read I hope. So I'll let you know when they're hot off the presses. New posts continue under awards. Both awards on my mantel. James Beard Foundation Award. My Zester Daily article on Pierre Seillan.

Eric Nicolas, Artist-Vigneron Can wine be art? I urge you to taste here and ask yourself that question. Eric Nicolas is an artist-vigneron in the most profound sense. Nicolas, a native of Dieppe, started his adult life working for Total France as an electrical engineer before succumbing to the desire to make wine. Land in the Coteaux du Loir was within his means and so he and his wife Christine bought a run-down farm in the area in Today they have 13 hectares of vines, on over fifty different parcels, with different expositions and soils types presenting multiple variations on the theme of flinty clay on limestone.

Many of the vines are old — over 50 — and new plantings are made from selections Nicolas has propagated from his own vines. As of all are farmed biodynamically; yields are extremely low; harvest is by hand. Indeed, it would be difficult to find wines more handcrafted than these.

Each parcel is vinified separately though this represents an almost unthinkable amount of work and concentration; and vinification is, essentially, non-interventionist: Premices is a cuvee of Jasnieres that Nicolas launched in Intended to be his fruity, easy and early drinking Jasnieres, it comes from vines in the process of being converted to biodynamics. The , tasted in early , wad a crystalline charmer. With 8 grams of residual sugar to balance the lively citrus zest notes and dee minerality, it was pure and fresh and easy to love.

Next comes Les Rosiers, a selection of young vines from various parcels — young here meaning under 50 years old — fermented and aged in barriques on a four year rotation. The , tasted in early , opened with a nose recalling apple crumble.

It was off-dry 7 grams residual sugar and had a light thread of co2. Dulcet yet decisive, the wine was lyrical, beautifully balanced, an equipoise of steel and honey. Tasted at the same time, the , with 16 grams of residual sugar, was so textured and so mineral you just want to sit down in front of it, chin in hands, and think about it.

Its attack was like glacial waters rushing over rocks, a riverbed of quinine and stone. Achingly elegant, it was regal and tinged with flavors of lime and tisane. I was somewhat less enthusiastic about the , which seemed a bit sweeter than the 7 grams residual sugar of the , and hotter, its flavors more in the apple-apple cider range. Elixir de Tuf is a very special cuvee, a liquoreux not made every year. It comes from the last trie of the harvest and the grapes must have a minimum potential alcohol of 20 degrees.

The , with 9. Fascinating but not really for beginners. Nicolas may make as many as five different cuvees of Coteaux du Loir blanc. The wine ferments in newish barrels and ages on its lees, in barrel, for at least a year. Simultaneously delicate and resilient as steel wire, the , tasted in , is nuanced and racy with a lipsmacking sur lie tingle and lovely lemon zest accents as well as flavors of wax and honey.

From mid-palate to the long finish, the wine sounds depths of slate and stone while the fruit floats above, light and lyrical. Beautifully balanced, it makes a superb aperitif and absolutely inspires culinary creativity as do the and which I tasted in early The first, distinctly off-dry, was creamy with an undertow of steel. The equally steely was strong and apple-scented. Tasted in , the wine was a burnished gold with aromas of creamed corn, wax and quince.

Dulcet rather than syrupy, it was delicate yet definitive, racy, subtle and extremely nuanced, with a long mineral-tisane finish. The truth of the earth is here. The Vieilles Vignes Eparses bottling is a Coteaux du Loir from 50 to 80 year old vines on flinty clay soils. Yields are kept low, to wit: An elegant, subtle wine, both forceful and fine-boned.

The , a demi-seec with 20 grams residual sugar and 14 degrees alcohol came across like terroir-driven cider when tasted in early By the spring of it had settled down, found its voice, with a texture as plush as a velvet cushion and flavors of citronelle and herbal tea surrounding a core of minerals. Listen closely here too.

This is a wine of discovery. The grapes ferment in open tanks and are punched down. Malolactic fermentation occurs in barrels where the wine will age from a year to 18 months before being bottled unfiltered. The , tasted in spring , came on with a burst of freshly ground white pepper which gave way to flavors of sweet spices and plum.

I had initially been bothered by some high acetone notes which disappeared with aeration. And not only did I not feel the The wine was that fascinating. The , with 15 degrees alcohol, was rich and meaty all things being relative. The , peppery, spicy and mineral, had a pungency reminiscent of St Nectaire. The , tasted in early when it had not completed its malolactic and still had plenty of co2, seemed more in line with the , potentially every bit as adore- able.

It is an excellent homage, a wine I always adore. The grapes ferment in open casks for a month with regular punching down. The wine goes through malolactic and spends a year in barriques of 3 to 5 wines and is bottled unfiltered.

The should have been immortalized in the Grape Variety Hall of Fame. I am convinced that the , tasted in early , will be every bit as good. The , tasted in late , while not as dazzling as the , displayed the Aunis black pepper along with tar and St.

The , also tasted in late , was evolving nicely in every sense. The color was recalled autumn leaves, as did the aroma which also included dried herbs and hay. Fruit bomb lovers would hate this delicate wine with its smooth, fleeting flavors, their names just out of grasp, dried rose petals and, yes, black pepper.

The wine is so sui generis. Love it or hate it. Nicolas also makes a number of special bottlings depending on the vintage and his inspiration. They are always worth trying. Is it any wonder that Nicolas has become the standard bearer of Jasnieres and the Coteaux du Loir or that he is the one who took these appellations out of funky wine bars and put them on the tables of 3 Michelin star restaurants as well as on the blackboards of cutting edge winebars from St.

December 21, Back in what seems like another lifetime, when I was a criminal defense attorney at Manhattan Legal Aid, there was a liberal judge named Bruce Wright. A Renaissance man, an African-American, Wright often wrote his legal opinions in the form of poems, some in iambic pentameter.

True to his liberal leanings, he set very low bail in appropriate cases -- which earned him the nickname "Cut 'Em Loose Bruce" in the city's tabloids. And when the Xmas season rolled around, he would greet all he passed with a hearty "Meretricious! December 20, The most unusual wine and food pairing of the month: Both the wine and the sushi were linked by corresponding notes of iodine and the sweetness of the paste married well with the sweetness of the wine.

December 17, By way of apology for my long silence, here's something of an explanation. Home repairs -- leaky water heaters, toilet replacements etc etc. Wall-to-wall tastings, article deadlines. And I'm a news junkie. With all that's been happening in the past couple of weeks I've pretty much been glued to both internet and its constant feeds as well as endless tv reports.

I'm guessing that it was the because that is the year on the cork. The back label said In any event, the wine had light floral and peach aromas. It was firm, tense, mineral and fresh. A structured wine with herbal tea notes. Black cherry, cassis and chalk flavors, the wine had great freshness. It was lean, lightly tart, with no body fat and straight as an arrow.

November 24, I've been meaning to post more tasting notes -- another grower Champagne, some Chateauneuf-du-Pape recommendations, but instead please bear with me for a kvetch about gentrification. My neighborhood in the north of the 9th arrt is often written about as being the next Marais.

It has been given the awful nickname of SoPi for South Pigalle. On my block a branch of Kitsune -- very large for the neighborhood -- is in the works and, coming back from my grocery store, I saw that a gyoza shop is in the works. Now I admit that it will be nice to have a place where I can get good gyoza -- if, that is, they're homemade. But it's taking the place of what was a butcher.

That space has been vacant for about five years and I've missed it. We need a butcher midway up the steep slope of the rue des Martyrs. Well, there is a pricey new restaurant around the corner that ages its Angus beef in a refrigerated vitrine for all prospective clients to see. I wonder if they'll sell meat to-go.

Philippe Alliet Chinon L'Huisserie. Benoit Blet of Domaine des Terres Blanches. October 15, 20, 21, 23, 24, By shaggy, I mean I'll write bit by bit, covering at least six domaines.

Crazy in the nicest possible way? The brothers took over the family's 25 hectares in the north of Cairanne, on the slopes of St.

Martin and Les Douyes in They credit the quality of their wines to the high percentage of old vines -- over 4o years, including some that are a century old. They also keep yields very low -- pruning hard, cluster thinning -- and have converted to biodynamics. Wines are fermented in open tanks, with punching down, for Cairanne AOC, and in closed tanks with pumping over for CdR.

The red wines are bottled with neither fining nor filtration. It went surprisingly well with an entremet of sweetened fromage blanc with candied citrus zests.

Tannic, too, so wait a bit. It's a powerful wine and was powerfully closed when sampled. A smooth attack was followed by a multitude of red fruit, herb and spice flavors. The wine can surely age but was ready to enjoy. Indeed, it just slipped down the gullet.

Domaine Rouge Garance Created in by Claudie and Bertrand Cortellini, with the help of neighbor Jean-Louis Trintignant, the domaine consists of 28 hectares -- farmed organically -- in the communes of St. Of the wines sampled, I the following two: After being harvested by hand, destemmed and undergoing cold soaking, the wine fermented for roughly ten days in concrete tanks at low temperatures.

It was smooth, pure-fruited, with no jagged edges. The finish, slightly tart and tannic, would have been tamed by chilling the wine and pairing it with a local chevre.

After a two-week fermentation, the wine aged for a year in barriques of two wines. Rather gentle, the wine was mildly seasoned by oak but needed aeration or cellaring to more fully reveal its charms. Thibaud Chaume of Domaine Arnaud-Chaume. The Stony Vineyards of the Vivarais.

A quick note to say that I've been busying closing up the country house and getting ready to move back up to Paris tomorrow. I can get back to serious writing and post some tempting wine notes. Even the SO2 meaning none has held up nicely. Guy Bossard, Iconic Muscadet Producer. Sylvie de la Vigerie, granddaughter of the great Olga Raffault.

I have just spent the past two months in the 9th circle of computer hell. I don't want to tempt the gods but I think I'm beginning to see the light at the end of the tunnel. I'll have to spend the next couple of days dealing with Apple over the phone to help me restore some functions to my new Mac -- not to mention trying to retrieve things off the hard drive of my dead Mac when I return to Paris -- but I hope to be posting some tasting notes and other stories soon.

Not entirely out-of-the woods but close. Tastings are ongoing and, now that long days on the phone with technicians from Apple and Microsoft as well as representatives of SNCF are drawing to a close, I am visiting vignerons and making lots of wonderful discoveries.

Some will be kept secret until the book is published. Others will be published here in the near future. A Theatre Review, of sorts Any Shakespeare lovers out there? Have loved Mnouchkine's productions in the past -- which is why I was willing to see Macbeth in a language other than English. The last montage in "Les Tambours sur la Digue" was one of the most breathtaking I've ever seen. But, this Macbeth, good grief! Any high school could have put on a Macbeth to rival this which was supposed to open on April 9th.

The opening was put off and put off again. The 30th, when we went, was the "new" opening night. When we got there we found out our tickets were free because Mnouchkine didn't feel the play was ready. It will never be ready. Unlike her other productions, Mnouchkine seems to have had no vision for this play. It has no raison d'etre. And none of the actors appeared to have the wherewithal to take on Shakespeare.

Nearly a month after they were supposed to open, they still needed prompting. My guess is that they didn't know the meaning of the lines they were reciting. If they had understood them, they wouldn't have had such difficulty remembering them. And the overloaded, completely unnecessary scenery when the most minimalist of sets was called for. Worse still, Macbeth delivering "Tomorrow and tomorrow etc" from inside a bunker.

Were I a close confidante of Mnouchkine's, I'd advise her to close this show down and write it off as a loss. I dread to think what the critics will -- indeed, must -- say. Buvette's "small plate" of Coq au Vin chez moi. The text you type here will appear directly below the image. Jean Chanrion standing in front of his wine bar, Le Vin des Rues, with some friends.

Wine Bar Article You can read the entire article here. Rosa Navier, behind the bar at Aux Negociants. Jean Navier, looking out of the kitchen at Aux Negociants. The ardoise at Aux Negociants. Rosa carafes our wine. Cuisses de Faison rotis aux choux. Mural at Aux Negociants. Huet's winemaker Jean-Bernard Berthome. Promising Chinons from Johann Spelty.

Will taste them again tomorrow. I have been Mac-less since my last posting. My poor baby was in the hospital, to wit the Apple Store at the Carrousel de Louvre last time I will use an Apple Store for anything but that's another story and I was in the country.

The hard drive was replaced and I am only now rebuilding things. I expect to get a delivery of some bottles of Chinon from over 30 producers at the beginning of the year. So there will be more news from me, tasting notes and anecdotes etc.

I may even post again before wishing you all Bonnes Fetes! Back from a great trip to NYC and bedridden with a mild flu. As Gilda Radner said, "It's always something. August 13, I must apologize for my seeming lethargy. I'm preparing to go to NYC for the first time in too many moons; I've been overwhelmed by paper work and French bureaucracy and I've been tasting my way through the wines of Touraine. Once that book is finished, I plan to reorganize the site.

I'd really like to encourage readers to comment. So there's one thing I'd like to encourage you to do now. If you've not already done so, please sign up for my Newsletter. Go to the FrenchFeast page and simply sign up. You'll receive an email asking you to confirm. I don't send out many Newsletters but I feel I owe it to you to let you know when I've posted something of interest.

Misunderstanding Muscadet I fail to understand why so many wine journalists ignore the vinous history of the region when they are reporting on new developments. I've just read today's Drinks Business. Recently — and repeatedly — this has been the case with Muscadet. Suddenly, it seems, every wine scribe is falling in love with the Melon-de-Bourgogne-based white from the Nantais region of France.

Clisson, Pallet, and Gorges. None of this is new. The wines were gorgeous. I still have some in my cellar and drink them with delight. The reasoning behind the cru system was two-fold. Yes, there was a desire to delimit the best terroirs — and in the s Leonard Humbrecht was called in to consult — but the principal reason was this: The creation of Crus is certainly a step in the right direction.

One of France's prettiest wine villages, with its history-rich fortress, its medieval streets, its wines, its rillettes, its tree-lined quai bordering the river. Of course you want to linger, drink a glass or two. And people are always asking me my advice for places to go.

If it's open, try the guinguette. But it's also important to know where NOT to go. La Cave Voltaire on the rue Voltaire. The ownership must have changed. I recall having had pleasant aperitifs there and nice chats with a young owner some ten years ago. Now le patron is one of the rudest men on the planet. I have never met an owner as disagreeable. If you want to be insulted, yelled at, left waiting while he goes about his personal business, by all means, come here.

If you want to feel welcomed and enjoy your wine and food, go anywhere else. You are guaranteed to have an awful time here. Forgive me for being so absent.

Many things are to blame, among them, French bureaucracy, American bureaucracy, things cars, computers, lawnmowers breaking down. All the things that eat up your day and exhaust you. I'm also busy tasting wines for the Touraine volume of Earthly Delights. I've made some terrific discoveries and hope to talk more about this soon. Another thing that eats up my time -- and I'm sure there are some of you out there who can relate to this -- is Facebook.

Please regard this window into a former New Yorker's life in France -- Paris and the Loire Valley and beyond -- as a work-in-progress, not so much a website as a construction site. If you would like to buy any of my books, please contact me directly. It is also occasionally a blog.

NB Many people write to me asking me to put them on the list. It's very easy to put yourself on the list. Just do the following: Once you confirm, you're on the mailing list. I've tried to correct mistakes but my efforts bore no fruit. Whither the French Patrimony?

Wednesday is restaurant day at le Figaro. Today I noticed something that observers of trends in France, structural linguists and just plain cynics might find interesting. Just saw the list of Chinons that won awards at the Salon d'Agriculture in Paris. Heavens, what a sorry lot! When I was practicing criminal law there was a saying, "Never underestimate the stupidity of a jury.

Now I've sat on many wine juries while in France and I've come to the same conclusion. The results of the Salon d'Agriculture concours, at least where Chinon is concerned, merely reinforce my negative opinion of such "tribunals. My book, of course, will include many, many more recommendations that this but it's a good, sure start. Cryoextraction explained by Ribereau-Gayon Ribereau-Gayon's Paper on Pressurage a basse temperature 2. So Blogger Budd, would you please answer the following: I await your response.

Another year, another Salon des Vins de Loire. But, with each passing year, there are more and more "Salons Off. It had started some time in the mids and was held in the Cave de la Dive Bouteille in Bourgueil.

Then it moved to Paul Filliatreau's cellars between Montsoreau and Saumur and then to the Chateau de Breze where the historic troglodyte caves are glacial. La Levee de la Loire, after a nice Salon Off last year when it had no official name, came to Paris earlier this year with its 90 or so members.

I hope they're planning another Paris event as I won't be able to go to the tasting in Angers. And then there's another Salon Off in the Hotel des Penitents.

I think I've got the name right. Meanwhile, I've been fighting the flu and hope that it won't stop me from doing all the tasting I've planned. My focus this year is still on eastern Touraine. I want to finish Vouvray, the huge, generic Touraine appellation and some small ones I've been saving for the end eg Valencay and Orleans. Alan Shenker aka Yossarian aka Capn Stan. January 9, Back from Sicily. Lots to report but my writing will have to wait while I track down and recover the coat I left on the bus from Siracusa and Catania and deal with Al Italia for having lost my suitcase.

Yes, it was recovered but not without loss of time, money and peace of mind. Favorite wine of trip: Hope to taste lots of wine from Etna and Ceresuola di Vittoria. Reports on my return. Best wishes for a healthy, happy and gastronomic New Year! All I want for Christmas is great Armagnac: Find out more in WineTastingNotes. Here's one reason I never want to leave my neighborhood in Paris: In the picture, beauty parlor owner Laurence Armelle and client of 39 years Mme Gaudron.

Say it ain't so, Joel! November 14, Exciting news: At a Montlouis tasting yesterday. Francois Chidaine, the president of the growers syndicat, told me that Montlouis AOC, following the lead of Bourgueil AOC, has withdrawn from InterLoire, the organization responsible for, among other things, promoting Loire Valley wines.

Very briefly, here are my coups de coeur from the tasting, listed by style: This photo was taken by wine bar pal Mark Dekeister. I know I've been pretty silent of late. I've been buried under bureaucratic paperwork, eg just sent in my taxes and the French tax people have managed to screw up my information so I have to straighten that out. I have also been obsessed by the election. Tried to go to the USA to volunteer for Obama but things didn't work out.

And I've decided to spend the end of the year in Siracusa. If you have any Siracusa tips, please send! For those of you who have wondered why I haven't posted in such a long time, know this: On or about Aug. I was in Touraine and, on the following day, took the MacBook to Tours -- currently in an urban mess due to tramway construction. The hard drive was replaced, as was Microsoft Office for Mac. Initially all the Office apps were in French but we managed to get the English versions for all but Entourage.

Then I found out that Bluetooth had also been affected but not repaired, which led to a visit to the Apple Store-Opera on my first day back in Paris. Getting off the local train between Tours and Chinon, I dropped the bag carrying my laptop.

It still worked but I could only see a tiny triangle in the upper left hand corner. The screen had been broken. I immediately tried to make an appointment with the Genius Bar at either of Paris' Apple Stores for the first day of my return but Opera was booked for weeks and Rivoli's first opening was the day after my return to Paris.

I just picked it up today -- such is the backlog. In the interim I brought out my old iBook and found that I could access my email by using the cable connection but could do nothing else. Demanding more of the creaky old iBook meant staring at the spinning beach ball of doom for a miserable hour for each maneuver.

As I try to catch up over the next couple of days, I'll try to post some notes on the Anjou tastings as well as give some impressions of a recent visit to the vineyards of Savoie.

Right now I'm praying to the powers that be to keep my dear MacBook healthy and happy and safe from the clumsiness of its devoted owner. In FrenchFeast , what to do when life gives you too many mirabelles. Well, the fraction not bitten by wasps. Click over to FrenchFeast to see pre-lunch wine samples. July 5, 10, 11, In FrenchFeast , my Pic St. Loup saga -- with plenty of tasting notes. I'm back in Touraine after an unexpectedly long stay in Paris.

As often happens, life gets in the way of posting but here are some "tweets. Loup; c The red wine section of my Chateauneuf-du-Pape report which began in April ; d Some recent thoughts on hypernatural wine; e Loire, Loire and more Loire.

I hereby entitle you to bug me about further delays. Squirting sauce gribiche on hot-dog-shaped tete de veau at Yannick Alleno's Terroir Parisien.

I have no idea why it's sideways. In the mood for some comfort food? Try the recipe for Amish Chicken in FrenchFeast. Farcidure If you watched the French elections last night you might have been puzzled by the "Farcidure" posters.

This being France, it's not surprising that farcidure is a local gastronomic specialty. Below, a clip from an article on Hollande's farcidure published in L'Express: Retournez sur un plat. Ce milhassou se mange seul avec une salade ou bien en accompagnement d'une viande en sauce, un coq au vin par exemple! David Schildknecht reviews Earthly Delights On the Earthly Delights page , a couple of new fans.

And an apology for having been so silent. Painters are hard at work in my apartment and I have been relegated to my bedroom. There is a solid layer of plaster dust everywhere you look. But when it's over -- in about a week -- it will be wonderful! For those of you who still place some stock in the Red Guide 's restaurant ratings, here is the list, hot off the press.

Now in general distribution! Nice to see my book as the subject of an enthusiastic thread on website wineloverspage. Here's the start of the thread, name removed to protect the innocent. Actually, this is only Volume 1 of a planned 3-volume set. In addition to up-to-date coverage of Sancerre and Pouilly-Fume, there is extensive discussion of the ongoing renaissance in Menetou-Salon, Reuilly and Quincy. Friedrich is enthusiastic about the improved quality she finds throughout the region.

This is a must rather a book for every Loire head. More praise for "Earthly Delights I only wish all three volumes were ready. For those of us who truly love the Loire, the book is a required tool to understand the breadth of current possibilities. Every wine region deserves such a passionate advocate. If it doesn't, please let me know! You must click on the book's own page, not the general page for selected works. Sometimes I wonder why I bother.

Then I get a note like this from one of the people I most respect in the wine industry -- in this case, Robert Vifian, perhaps the world's finest expert on the wines of Pomerol.

In Jackiezine , a reconstruction of an email dialogue between me and Terry Theise on high alcohol wines, why they exist and what can or should be done about them. Email from my pal Abel Osorio, vigneron at Domaine Nau in Bourgueil, in response to my query about the harvest.

Well, not that bad at all. Now I've got to start contacting other vigneron pals though I'll wait before pestering the chenin producers. Terry Theise and I have been good buddies since he contacted me after reading the first edition of my Loire book. We, and his wonderful wife Karen aka Odessa Piper, have shared many wonderful bottles and spent many hours remaking the world.

Terry has just returned from one of his many voyages and wasted no time purchasing and reading my latest book, "Earthly Delights: Here's the email he sent me minus a point or two of very well observed constructive criticism which shall be taken into account for Volume II: We each ordered one so that we wouldn't fight over a single copy.

I've more or less finished my first pass, and will be dipping in again at leisure, and more deliberately. You will certainly have produced the standard reference for these times. The things I will applaud are the fundamental things one always applauds in your work. You are thorough, responsible, intellectually rigorous, considerate of your reader, large-hearted but not overly sentimental, somatic and careful. I can't wait to see Touraine, because I suspect it will draw from an even deeper and more lyrical part of you.

I agree with nearly all your ideas and arguments, even the most provocative ones. I have really nothing negative to say, nor any caveats that would diminish my praise. Yours is important work, and you do it seriously and well. I think when all is said and done, the collected volumes will accumulate into something that is also beautiful.

The big-picture is that you're one of those people the wine world really cannot do without. I'm blown away by the sheer honor of this work of yours. I am creating a separate page for my new book. Watch this space for info. Front and back cover of my new book. More information, including how to buy it, coming soon! Entitled "Soul Food a la Francaise". More details very soon. Quite an ordeal, I can tell you.

The rights to my book, The Wines of France, have just reverted to me. I have been asking for this and I am thrilled. The experience of working with Ten Speed Press was a nightmare. This was my first vacation in four years. I had just finished the project -- which I'll tell you about before September -- that has kept me from blogging for the past several months or longer. Talk about a blast from the past! Spent all day reading James Wilson's terrific book Terroir with the hope of being better able to explain the varieties of limestone soils etc.

I was brooding of a number of geology-related subjects while trying to a nice glass of Sancerre in my garden. Then I decided I wanted to look up "mud. I pulled out my undergraduate geology book, entitled, appropriately enough, Geology and written by William Putnam, updated by Ann Bradley Basset. From various underlinings, I see that I had referred to this book when writing the first Loire book. I found a sheet of legal foolscap inserted between two pages, fully covered with my handwriting.

It was something I had written way back in the day at the time of final exams. I don't know if I ever gave it to the teacher and, if I did, what his response was. But I was pretty surprised reading it tonight, as I struggle through Geology yet again. Unhappy for you and for myself. I feel like I'm regurgitating facts that I've picked up from the text, the encyclopedia or elsewhere.

I don't really understand some of the concepts and don't feel I could do any independent thinking with them. NYU requires that liberal arts majors take 3 courses in science. So we have to take something and you have to teach people who "aren't interested. Because you feel deeply about your science you are defensive about people who aren't interested. Maybe I shouldn't speak for everyone. My feelings are just my own. I just have a habit of projecting them. We arrive at university generally bored and alienated by our previous schooling and have no real desire to learn when we get to college.

That is no small thing, although ideally it should be a given and not a goal. Aside from that, geology, like everything else one can know, is just plain interesting. The problem is that tests are among the most boring things in the world. One must have a desire -- really a desire beyond a passing grade -- to read and remember anything. I think that desire, at least for myself, comes about when I have learned about a particular thing in moderate depth, which then makes me want to understand the totality.

Synclines and anticlines, while beginning to give me a picture of how mountain ranges were formed. I felt like an ass drawing the stages of the development of the ranges because I don't really understand it. I passed the course. And here I am today, trying to make sense of Jurassic and Cretaceous soils. I know, I know. I said I'd write more about my transhumance and getting back into the rhythm of country life but I haven't. Ok, on the plus side: On a happier note, the first report on March feasting madness is now on view in FrenchFeast.

I do believe I have the dubious distinction of having been defriended by none other than Marcella Hazan. Anyone who gushes enough over her majesty's existence can be Marcella's friend but I guess it takes something special to pierce her 'me-myself-and-I' bubble to provoke an outward generated stab. If you've read an earlier post in Jackiezine , you've witnessed part of an earlier skirmish -- which Marcella deleted from her site.

She lately re-initiated her obsessive diatribe against cele. I don't care what it means in Vietnamese, "dung" is not a good name for a restaurant. I'm currently wrapped up in shawls and sniffling and sneezing and generally aching all over.

On the morning of the last day I knew I had to head directly to the train station instead of the Parc des Expositions. Fortunately, I'd gotten a lot of work done while still in relatively good health. As soon as I can breathe, I'll start posting some tasting notes and news. Apologies for my silence. I'm working hard on the Loire book, preparing for the Salon des Vins de Loire and dealing with serious home repair problems.

In Jackiezine you'll find parts of a debate between me and Marcella Hazan on the merits of French cooking. It's only part of what were two lengthy threads and some of the formatting is very strange and I don't know how to fix it! Tasting Tweet Sancerre rose from Bernard Reverdy. They were known for their terrific roses and I'm so glad to see taste that that's still true. This is taut and focused and big for a Drinking it with remains of truffle-layered Brie which gets better by the day.

Now ideally, I might have liked an old GC from le Mesnil or Chouilly with this but I'm determined to get through my Sancerre samples and schlepping 17 bottles up to Paris with me tomorrow so I figured I'd treat myself to the Reverdy. Happy Vinous New Year! Menu for the New Year: Nectaire, Brie de Meaux layered with black truffles; then assortment of dark chocolate with clementines and rum. Wines not yet entirely set. BTW 2, posting listed below for October 24 has been deleted.

Thanks to the kind intervention of Francoise Vellinga, a wonderful Dutch wine merchant, I have received samples from Francois Cotat. Can't wait to taste them! In WineTastingNotes , a bow to the Baumards. In WineTastingNotes, a gaggle of lesser-known Sancerres. So what's everyone drinking tomorrow? I'm staying in the Loire, natch: Tasting notes to follow. For November 25 - November 29, A Tour de France in 31 Stands: Thousands of vignerons will be offering samples of their wines.

And many more thousands will be tasting, shopping for the holidays or for the entire year. How to avoid a nervous breakdown? The Letter and Number after each name refers to the aisle and the stand. There's practical info at the bottom of the list.

The Loire gains two additional AOCs: Haut-Poitou and Cotes d'Auvergne. So I'm at this restaurant, one I like, the other day for a wine tasting. On the blackboard there are three wines listed to be served by the glass. One of them, written as a Touraine moelleux Pibaleau interests me -- for the obvious reasons. I was a bit curious, however, about why it was listed as a "Touraine" as Azay-le-Rideau, where Pibaleau is located is made from chenin blanc so why not use the Touraine-Azay-le-Rideau appellation?

The restaurant, I should note, is closed to the public for this event, BTW, and we'll be having lunch there. I've finished the preprandial tasting and ask if I can taste that Pibaleau. You'd think I'd asked for a swig of DRC. Well, it will cost you 4E50, I was told. Many servers were consulted, including the very stiff person -- who may have come across as super stiff because his white shirt was starched within an inch of its linen life -- who seemed to be the manager.

I walked away, shaking my head in that combination of 'what more could I have expected' and outright disbelief. I have worked in many restaurants. I think they must have consulted the chef owner and by-and-by a glass with about 2 ounces all I needed was handed to me. I had a question. This did not go over well either. But they listened, lips pursed. Is it a Touraine-Azay-le-Rideau? Is that what is says on the label? When they looked at me as if they were Christine O'Donnell reacting to the statement that the separation of church and state was in the First Amendment, I added, "Touraine?

One of the crew offered that it was a Vin de Pays. Sometime later, starched shirt approached and whispered that the wine -- which was quite nice, BTW, was, indeed, a Touraine-Azay-le-Rideau. Note to young wait staff: Here's a wee update. Yesterday I attended a Montlouis tasting lunch. It was oh-so-dry, creamy, chalky, saline, with lemon accents.

It made me think of Champagne from the Cotes des Blancs. I couldn't -- and didn't -- stop drinking it. It was served with an appetizer of veal carpaccio garnished with hazelnut butter, lemon zests and what the chef called "cauliflower couscous".

The meal went on. More wines were served. And then came coffee. My colleague and friend, Michel Smith, went off in search of a bottle and came back with this. The two of us polished it off and then headed out into the grey sunshine that is autumn in Paris. While watching the depressing election returns I received this wonderful note from Victor Hazan via Marcella's Facebook link: Marcella Hazan Jackie, Victor wants me to send you this: Your book The Wines of France has bowled me over.

It is the product not of a pedagogue or of a publicizer or of a tale spinner, but of an astonishingly well-informed, disciplined and acute tasting se It is simply the best, most useful book on the wines of a single country that has been written. No one who drinks wine, and is likely to buy or order a bottle of French wine can afford to be without it. My admiration for what you have accomplished and what you are capable of accomplishing is immense.

In Jackiezine , an insider baseball post on a debate about the wines of Domaine des Baumard , particularly the Quarts de Chaume.

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KIIS FM breakfast hosts Kyle Sandilands and Jackie 'O' Henderson have interviewed some of the world's biggest celebrities over the years. But one Hollywood A-lister made Jackie's life 'hell. The website maintained by Jacqueline Friedrich, the author of The Wines of France: the Essential Guide for Savvy Shoppers, and A Wine & Food Guide to the Loire.