The star manages to avoid. Page 1 of Black Holes Every day we look out upon the night sky, wondering and dreaming of what lies beyond our planet. The universe that we live in is so diverse and unique, and it interests us to learn about all the variance that lies beyond our grasp. Within this marvel of wonders, our universe holds a mystery that is very difficult to understand because of the complications that arise when trying to examine and explore the principles of space.
That mystery happens to be that of the ever elusive, black hole. This essay will hopefully give you the knowledge and understanding of the concepts, properties, and processes involved with the space phenomenon of the black hole.
It will describe how a black hole is generally formed, how it functions, and the effects it has on the universe. By definition, a black hole is a region where matter collapses to infinite density, and where, as a result, the curvature of space-time is extreme. Moreover, the intense gravitational field of the black hole prevents any light or other electromagnetic radiation from escaping. Behind this horizon, the inward pull of gravity is overwhelming and no information about the black hole's interior can escape to the outer universe.
Applying the Einstein Field Equations to collapsing stars, Kurt Schwarzschild discovered the critical radius for a given mass at which matter would collapse into an infinitely dense state known as a singularity.
At the center of the black hole lies the singularity, where matter is crushed to infinite density, the pull of gravity is infinitely strong, and space-time has infinite curvature. Here it is no longer meaningful to speak of space and time, much less space-time. Jumbled up at the singularity, space and time as we know them cease to exist.
At the singularity, the laws of physics break down, including Einstein's Theory of General Relativity. This is known as Quantum Gravity. In this realm, space and time are broken apart and cause and effect cannot be unraveled.
Even today, there is no satisfactory theory for what happens at and beyond the rim of the singularity. A rotating black hole has an interesting feature, called a Cauchy horizon, contained in its interior. We talk about projects, not orders. We get involved in each project, developing them with love and passion, dedication and sensitivity, ingredients that we believe essential in the creative process of any artistic work.
Facebook Twitter Mail Website. Research paper on black holes recent. We are a full-scale graphic design agency and studio, with a stable, in-house team of talented graphic design professionals, web programmers and project managers working together, giving a friendly and cost-effective service.
While in raster the image representation is totally different. In Raster format, the image is represented by pixels. Vector image can be scaled to any extend without loss of its resolution. While raster or bitmap images scales poorly. This expanding cloud, visible long after the initial explosion fades from view, forms a supernova remnant. So, a black hole is an object, which is so compact that the escape velocity from its surface is greater than the speed of light.
The following table lists escape velocities and Schwarzchild radii for some objects: And are believed to be formed during supernova explosions. The after-effects are observed in some X-ray binaries known as black hole candidates.
The velocity depends on the mass of the planet. The scientists believe if our Sun dies, the sun may turn into a black hole. Black holes were theorized about as early as , when John Michell mistakenly combined Newtonian gravitation with the corpuscular theory of light. The concept of an escape velocity, Vesc, was well known, and even though the speed of light wasn't, Michell's idea worked the same. His mistakes were twofold: These mistakes happened to cancel each other out, but when the wave theory of light gained favor, the astronomers abandoned these dark stars.
In the beginning of the 20th century, Einstein proposed his theory of general relativity. The formula worked out by Michell and rederived, this time without mistakes in the derivation, by Karl Schwarzschild, gives the Schwarzschild radius for any massive body that is, a body containing mass: Vesc for any body smaller than this radius would exceed that of light, and since general relativity forbids this; any matter within RS would be crushed into the center.
Thus RS can effectively be thought of as the boundary of a black hole, called an event horizon because all events within RS are causally disconnected from the rest of the universe. In an aphorism coined by John Wheeler , "black holes have no hair," hair meaning surface features from which details of it's formation might be obtained.
There are no perturbations in its event horizon, no magnetic fields. The hole is perfectly spherical and in fact has only three attributes: Of these properties, it is only the mass that concerns astronomers.
As a cloud of gas contracts, the interior heats up until the core is so hot and dense that nuclear reactions can occur. This state of equilibrium, during which a star is said to be on the main sequence, lasts until the hydrogen in the core is used up, about 10 billion years for a star like the sun, whereupon gravity will resume shrinking the star. Exactly what occurs next depends on the complicated interactions between different layers of the star, but generally, the star will explode in a supernova.
If there is any remnant of this explosion, its further evolution depends almost exclusively on it's mass. Degeneracy pressure is an effect that results from quantum mechanical interactions when the density of subatomic particles increases.
As it depends only on this density, it is non-thermal and will remain no matter how much the star cools down. This was the general base that general relativity gave to astronomers, but just because something is allowed to happen doesn't mean that it does.
Most astronomers resisted such absurd realities. Astronomers are very conservative by nature, and some of the most respected and influential astronomers of the day rejected this idea so soundly that it wasn't until the 60's that any actual searches began. At first, the only instruments available were the old familiar optical telescopes. Optical telescopes are just what they sound like, telescopes sensitive to the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
This spectrum can reveal much information regarding the source of the light. The color indicates the temperature of a star. By combining the type of star, identified by observing lots of other stars with similar characteristics, and our models of stellar processes with a measurement of the star's luminosity, it is possible to calculate the distance to the star. We can even determine the chemical composition of the star by observing any emission or absorption lines in the spectra.
Furthermore, these lines are very distinctive, and if they appear in the correct relation to each other but have been Doppler-shifted towards the red or blue ends of the spectrum, a measurement of the star's speed relative to the earth can be obtained. The only distinguishing feature of a black hole is its gravity, however, and searching for a black hole with an optical telescope is next to impossible. A black hole does not give off any light.
It's too small to observe by blocking out stars behind it. It could act as a gravitational lens, but to do so it would have to be directly in line with the Earth and some bright object, and even then there would be no way to distinguish between a black hole or a very dim star.
Still, there was on promising method proposed by Russian astronomers Zel'dovich and Guseinov in If the black hole was in a binary system with another, normal star, the light curve of the system would give it away.
Binary systems comprise about half of all known stars, so it is not unlikely that a black hole might be found next to a normal star. In a spectroscopic binary system, the stars rotate about their center of mass and the light will be Doppler shifted.
The light curve of a star is a graph of the intensity or Doppler-shift of light from the star versus time. Here the light curve of the visible companion can yield much information. The period of rotation about the center of mass can be determined by inspection of the Doppler-shifted light curve itself, and the mass of the visible star is given by the type of star and how luminous it is.
All that is then needed is a reasonable estimation of the inclination i of the system, and several important things can be calculated. A spectroscopic binary with no visible companion would be a candidate for a black hole, and if the dim star's mass is determined to be greater than that of the visible star, it would be a promising candidate. However, this method consists of many uncertainties. If the black hole were in a gaseous nebula, the gas would fall into the black hole.
The inherent magnetic fields of the gas create turbulence, generating heat, which is in turn transformed into electromagnetic radiation.
The luminosity of the gas could oscillate rapidly due to the turbulence, and such rapid oscillations would give the black hole away. Another Soviet scientist, Schwarzmann, developed the "Multichannel Analyzer of Nanosecond Pulses of Brightness Variation" in an effort to detect these oscillations, but that method also proved fruitless. X-ray novas are a special class of X-ray binaries where the system contains a late-type optical companion a star near the end of its life and a compact object, which can be either a neutron star or a black hole.
Usually the spectrum of the companion in this type of system is very weak compared to that of the gas, but in X-ray novae the fraction of light from X-ray heating is negligible, and we have an excellent opportunity to study the system in detail.
Research Papers words (3 pages) Black Holes Essay - Black Holes Black holes are objects so dense that not even light can escape their gravity, and since nothing can travel faster than light, nothing can escape from inside a black hole.
This paper will provide an overview of the mystery that is the black hole and provide a discussion of some of the main features of black holes including the causes of black holes, the characteristics of black holes, and an overview of some current research and discovery relating to black holes.
Mar 19, · All free online research papers, research paper samples and example research papers on Black Holes topics are plagiarized and cannot be fully used in your high school, college or university education. Learn how to write the research paper about the Black Hole. How to choose the topics, what type of essay to choose and how to cope with it.
Read this Science Research Paper and over 88, other research documents. Black Holes. Black Holes Our galaxy, as we know it, is a vast and complex dimension of our solar system. It has 5/5(1). Black Holes This Research Paper Black Holes and other 64,+ term papers, college essay examples and free essays are available now on laheimdo.cf Autor: review • November 2, • Research Paper • 2, Words (12 Pages) • 1, Views4/4(1).