The choice between administration modes is influenced by several factors, including. Different methods create mode effects that change how respondents answer, and different methods have different advantages. The most common modes of administration can be summarized as: There are several different designs, or overall structures, that can be used in survey research.
The three general types are cross-sectional, successive independent samples, and longitudinal studies. In cross-sectional studies, a sample or samples is drawn from the relevant population and studied once. A successive independent samples design draws multiple random samples from a population at one or more times.
Such studies cannot, therefore, identify the causes of change over time necessarily. For successive independent samples designs to be effective, the samples must be drawn from the same population, and must be equally representative of it.
If the samples are not comparable, the changes between samples may be due to demographic characteristics rather than time. In addition, the questions must be asked in the same way so that responses can be compared directly. Longitudinal studies take measure of the same random sample at multiple time points.
Longitudinal studies are the easiest way to assess the effect of a naturally occurring event, such as divorce that cannot be tested experimentally. However, longitudinal studies are both expensive and difficult to do.
This attrition of participants is not random, so samples can become less representative with successive assessments. To account for this, a researcher can compare the respondents who left the survey to those that did not, to see if they are statistically different populations. Respondents may also try to be self-consistent in spite of changes to survey answers.
Questionnaires are the most commonly used tool in survey research. However, the results of a particular survey are worthless if the questionnaire is written inadequately.
A variable category that is often measured in survey research are demographic variables, which are used to depict the characteristics of the people surveyed in the sample.
Reliable measures of self-report are defined by their consistency. It is important to note that there is evidence to suggest that self-report measures tend to be less accurate and reliable than alternative methods of assessing data e. Six steps can be employed to construct a questionnaire that will produce reliable and valid results.
The way that a question is phrased can have a large impact on how a research participant will answer the question. A respondent's answer to an open-ended question can be coded into a response scale afterwards,  or analysed using more qualitative methods. Survey researchers should carefully construct the order of questions in a questionnaire.
The following ways have been recommended for reducing nonresponse  in telephone and face-to-face surveys: Brevity is also often cited as increasing response rate. A literature review found mixed evidence to support this claim for both written and verbal surveys, concluding that other factors may often be more important. Survey methodologists have devoted much effort to determining the extent to which interviewee responses are affected by physical characteristics of the interviewer.
Main interviewer traits that have been demonstrated to influence survey responses are race,  gender,  and relative body weight BMI. Hence, race of interviewer has been shown to affect responses to measures regarding racial attitudes,  interviewer sex responses to questions involving gender issues,  and interviewer BMI answers to eating and dieting-related questions. The explanation typically provided for interviewer effects is social desirability bias: Interviewer effects are one example survey response effects.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Statistics Canada publication, see Survey Methodology. Research methods in psychology 9th ed. Hand , Advising on Research Methods: A consultant's companion pp. Johannes van Kessel Publishing. The total design method. Experiments in telephone introductions". Kwantitatieve Methoden , 22, 41— Proceedings of the Section on Survey Research Methods. Evidence from the multi-city study of urban inequality".
Findings from a household survey in Mexico". International Journal of Public Opinion Research. Evidence from a national Dutch face-to-face survey and a postal follow-up". International Journal of Public Health. Categorical data Contingency table Level of measurement Descriptive statistics Exploratory data analysis Multivariate statistics Psychometrics Statistical inference Statistical models Graphical Log-linear Structural.
Virtually every society has members who speak other than the predominant language. Some countries like Canada are officially multilingual. And, our increasingly global economy requires us to do research that spans countries and language groups. Can you produce multiple versions of your questionnaire? For mail instruments, can you know in advance the language your respondent speaks, or do you send multiple translations of your instrument?
Can you be confident that important connotations in your instrument are not culturally specific? Could some of the important nuances get lost in the process of translating your questions? People who do research on immigration issues have a difficult methodological problem.
They often need to speak with undocumented immigrants or people who may be able to identify others who are. Why would we expect those respondents to cooperate? Although the researcher may mean no harm, the respondents are at considerable risk legally if information they divulge should get into the hand of the authorities. The same can be said for any target group that is engaging in illegal or unpopular activities.
Is your population of interest dispersed over too broad a geographic range for you to study feasibly with a personal interview? It may be possible for you to send a mail instrument to a nationwide sample. You may be able to conduct phone interviews with them.
But it will almost certainly be less feasible to do research that requires interviewers to visit directly with respondents if they are widely dispersed. The sample is the actual group you will have to contact in some way. There are several important sampling issues you need to consider when doing survey research. What information do you have about your sample? Do you know their current addresses?
Their current phone numbers? Are your contact lists up to date? Can your respondents be located? Some people are very busy. Some travel a lot. Some work the night shift. Even if you have an accurate phone or address, you may not be able to locate or make contact with your sample. Who is the respondent in your study? Let's say you draw a sample of households in a small city.
A household is not a respondent. Do you want to interview a specific individual? Do you want to talk only to the "head of household" and how is that person defined? Are you willing to talk to any member of the household? Do you state that you will speak to the first adult member of the household who opens the door?
What if that person is unwilling to be interviewed but someone else in the house is willing? How do you deal with multi-family households? Similar problems arise when you sample groups, agencies, or companies.
Can you survey any member of the organization? Or, do you only want to speak to the Director of Human Resources? What if the person you would like to interview is unwilling or unable to participate? Do you use another member of the organization? If you have an incomplete list of the population i.
Lists of various groups are extremely hard to keep up to date. People move or change their names. Even though they are on your sampling frame listing, you may not be able to get to them. And, it's possible they are not even on the list. Even if you are able to solve all of the other population and sampling problems, you still have to deal with the issue of response rates.
Some members of your sample will simply refuse to respond. Others have the best of intentions, but can't seem to find the time to send in your questionnaire by the due date. Still others misplace the instrument or forget about the appointment for an interview. Low response rates are among the most difficult of problems in survey research. They can ruin an otherwise well-designed survey effort.
Sometimes the nature of what you want to ask respondents will determine the type of survey you select. Are you going to be asking personal questions? Are you going to need to get lots of detail in the responses? Can you anticipate the most frequent or important types of responses and develop reasonable closed-ended questions? Sometimes you are dealing with a complex subject or topic.
The questions you want to ask are going to have multiple parts. You may need to branch to sub-questions. A screening question may be needed to determine whether the respondent is qualified to answer your question of interest. For instance, you wouldn't want to ask someone their opinions about a specific computer program without first "screening" them to find out whether they have any experience using the program. Sometimes you have to screen on several variables e.
The more complicated the screening, the less likely it is that you can rely on paper-and-pencil instruments without confusing the respondent. Is your survey one where you can construct in advance a reasonable sequence of questions? Or, are you doing an initial exploratory study where you may need to ask lots of follow-up questions that you can't easily anticipate?
The essence of survey method can be explained as “questioning individuals on a topic or topics and then describing their responses” (Jackson, , p).
Survey Research Survey research is one of the most important areas of measurement in applied social research. The broad area of survey research encompasses any measurement procedures that involve asking questions of respondents.
This third definition of survey is a specific type of survey research. Here are the three specific techniques of survey research: Questionnaires - a series of written questions a participant answers. Survey research is a commonly used method of collecting information about a population of interest. There are many different types of surveys, several ways to administer them, and many methods of sampling.
Survey research is a quantitative method for collection of information from a pool of respondents by asking multiple survey questions. Respondents answer a series of questions of a designed survey, that will be used by survey makers to improve their products or services. Organizations which understand the importance of survey research conduct surveys . In survey research, independent and dependent variables are used to define the scope of study, but cannot be explicitly controlled by the researcher. Before conducting the survey.